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Archive for July, 2009

by Dahni

© Copyright 7/22/09

all rights reserved

Today: ‘We Declare’ – The 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence

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There were 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence and like today, they argued back and forth and often like stubborn school boys. Like modern day lobbyists, they each sought to promote their own interests and agendas and those of the colony they represented. Like our present day U.S. Congress, they could not agree on much. To actually kill the idea of independence from England, it was suggested that to do so, all must agree on independence. Still, someway; somehow, 56 signers unanimously agreed to have written and to sign a formal declaration of independence from England.

Then they had to argue over who was to write it.  Finally, it settled on Thomas Jefferson, one of the youngest delegates of the Continental Congress. Then they had to agree on the wording of the document. Votes, debates and arguments went back and forth. The delegates were bound to vote for or against and even to abstain from voting at all, according to the instructions or lack thereof from the states they represented.

Thomas Payne’s work, ‘Common Sense’ while arguably adding nothing new to the cause of independence, was an important work in gaining the support of WE the People. This public support in principle, led to the ‘Unanimous Decision.’

As to the final wording in the document, the other 55 signers should be equally credited as Thomas Jefferson (the 56th), that was charged with writing it.

For an interesting perspective, see the play or the movie entitled ‘1776’ see information here:

Dinner and a Show

From thirteen separate colonies they came. Fifty six men of various ages, intellect, occupations and financial means came together, for a single purpose.

The first signer, largest, and most famous signature is that of John Hancock, second President of the Continental Congress. Fact and fiction enter into why his name was so large as opposed to that of the others. Some information suggests ego, some believe it was so that the King of England would definitely see it. Some information suggests that his was the ONLY initial signature at or around July 4th, 1776 with the rest signing ‘copies’ anywhere from a month to six months later.

The war began a year earlier in 1775. The congress voted on declaring independence on July 2, 1776. The wording of the Declaration was approved and sent to the printer on July 4th, 1776. Later, the signatures appear on copies including what most of us consider the original Declaration of Independence, which remains in Washington D.C. at the National Archives. But it is a copy.

The youngest signer was Edward Rutledge at age twenty-six. Benjamin Franklin was the oldest at age 70. John Adams would become the second president of the United States followed by Thomas Jefferson, the writer and third president of the new country.

Of the 56 original signers:

17 were Lawyers

11 were Merchants

3 were Physicians

4 were Plantation Owners

3 were Merchants/Plantation Owners

1 was a Lawyer/Surveyor

1 was Lawyer/Merchant

1 was a Lawyer/Speculator

1 was a Scientist/Printer

1 Physician/Minister

1 was a Plantation Owner/Farmer

1 was Land Owner

2 were Lawyers/Plantation Owners

1 was a Lawyer/Musician

1 was a Plantation Owner/Merchant

1 was a Merchant/Land Speculator

1 was a Farmer

2 were Lawyers/Plantation Owners

1 was a Lawyer/Scientist

1 was a Plantation Owner/Soldier

1 was a Minister

56

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For more detailed information about the signers of the Declaration of Independence, see the following:

http://www.ushistory.org/DECLARATION/signers/index.htm

Sincearound 1999, the Internet has populated the popular unknown article simply called, ‘The Price They Paid.” These words are in reference to the actual words and pledge from the Declaration of Independence, where the signers and all those represented, pledged “their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor.”

The fact or fiction web site, Snopes.com, refutes much of this information as to the “price paid,” by the signers of the Declaration of Independence. It is not uncommon for people to embellish and add to history thinking that tales and stories and legends were more interesting than the cold bare facts. To read the article and Snopes’ research, see:

The Price They Paid

The dates, the signers, and the price they paid, are all a mixture of fact and fiction, blended like bread and made into bread crumbs; spread like Hansel and Gretel; lost and eaten by the birds of time.

But the actual facts of the extraordinary accomplishments by all those involved and with the final Declaration of Independence need no inclusion of fiction, to improve this greatness in our history!

The incredible facts are that on behalf of those they represented, the 56 signers did unanimously agree to declare independence from England and to the final wording of the Declaration of Independence.

As to why John Hancock’s signature was larger than any other name may never be known, but it was and it, along was his name was probably the most well known to the King of England and by its size in comparison to the others, would have probably been seen first.

The signers were men of property and influence and had a lot to lose in signing the document. With full knowledge that their actions and their signatures would separate them out and that they would be viewed as traitors to England; the crown,  and to King George, they signed the document.

With full knowledge that they might lose the war, they pledged themselves to the cause and to each other. And in pledging their lives, fortunes and sacred honor, they knew full well, that they were signing what could have been their own death warrants.

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These men and the women that stood beside them and the people that stood behind them were, no different than men and women today. These founding fathers and mothers pledged themselves to an idea and to each other, their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor, for something greater than themselves. The cause then and even now is Liberty.

Next time: The Declaration of Liberty – “WE Hold These Truths”

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Our Lady Liberty – How’s She Doing?

‘Thirteen – What’s in a Number?’

by Dahni

© Copyright 7/14/09

all rights reserved

Heretofore, WE have spent considerable time exploring liberty and specifically, the Statue of Liberty. Every statue; every building and anything built must have a foundation. The foundation of this blog, ‘Our Lady Liberty, – “How’s She Doing?” is liberty. It is a known fact that the more information or details about something WE have at our command, the easier it is to recall the information. The Statue of Liberty posts here, with all it’s information, was given for that purpose, to be able to recall the information. The Statue of Liberty as a visual representation of our liberty, should firmly fix an image of liberty in our minds. The purpose of any foundation is to be able to support, preserve, protect and maintain the structure upon which it stands. I would hope that you recall, it was only a few common people among WE the People, children and a newspaper man, which were responsible for getting that foundation built. It is rarely ever a matter of numbers, but unity that matters in erecting a base upon which to stand. And from this base; this pedestal and this foundation of liberty, upon which WE the People stand, WE the People move forward –

Today: ‘Thirteen – “What’s in a Number?’

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Numerically and biblically, the number 13 is associated with apostasy, revolt and even rebellion. The word apostasy comes from one Greek preposition (apo) + one Greek word (stasis). Looking at a circle, the Greek preposition apo would be the motion away from the surface of the circle. The Greek word stasis is defined as, “a standing still.” Apostasy (Gr. apostasiā, apostasies), is “a standing away,” or “a withdrawing from.” From its original meaning, it is easy to understand why the number thirteen, for many, is considered as an “unlucky number” and is feared by others. But apostasy is not the ONLY meaning of the number 13!

In numerology and numbers in scripture, the number twelve is considered the number of governmental perfection, corresponding to the number 3 (completeness) X (multiplied by), the number 4 (creative works), as the four seasons – spring, summer, fall and winter, the cycle of life. The number twelve is reflected in the twelve months of the year, twelve signs of the zodiac, twelve hours of the clock, twelve tribes of Israel, twelve Apostles of Jesus, twelve gods of Olympus, etc., whereas the number thirteen was considered irregular, transgressing this perfection.

But in nature, there are 13 Lunations in one Solar year. A ‘Lunation’ is a complete cycle of the Moon from New Moon, Waxing Moon, Full Moon, Waning Moon, Dark Moon and then New Moon again which takes approximately 28 days. This occurs 13 times during the time it takes the Earth to orbit around the Sun, also known as, a Solar year.

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Women are lunar creatures and their menstruation cycles are linked to these cycles of the moon as are the ocean tides and other naturally occurring phenomenon. The root of the word month and menses is Moon. Nature, not invention made the calendar! Women were the original time keepers. We know that 13 Moons and 13 menstrual cycles pass during the seasonal shifts of one year. When invention and myths replaced this natural order and a new calendar was put into place, all things feminine were demoted; devalued and any such lunar consciousness or association was believed to be evil, cursed and “unlucky.”

A year was no longer reckoned by the Moon. A year was divided into 12 intervals of time or 12 months, some with 30 days, some with 31 and one with only 28, but every four years, to reconcile the lost time to the cosmic truth, on leap year, one day is added in February. What was by nature, the wonder and proper preparation for new birth and to sustain new life, a woman’s menstruation became a ‘curse’ and she was considered “unclean.” Long ago, many were taught that the ancient rite –  ‘Drawing Down the Moon’ ( gazing at the Moon for Spiritual power), would make one insane, crazy or a lunatic, and the number 13 became an unlucky number!

The age of 13 is the age when children become teenagers.  This could also be another argument for rebellion, especially if you are the parent of a teenager or have ever been one. 🙂

As to fears associated with the number 13 and especially, Friday the 13th, levels of a multi-story building are numbered sequentially, from the basement, number 1 or ground floor upwards. In some nations, the number 13 is considered unlucky and either buildings will only be built to the 12th floor or purposefully omit numbering the 13th floor and are numbered as the 14th floor.

Landlords, business owners, hotels and motels with their suites and on their floors may omit the number 13, so as not to compromise their desirability, by superstitious customers and tenants. Even streets and addresses on streets may intentionally omit the number.

One of the largest manufacturers of elevators, Otis Elevators, estimates that 85% of the buildings with elevators, do not have a floor named the 13th floor. Also, the Disney ride ‘The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror’ is known to have 13 floors, even though the dial on the elevator goes to 12.

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Some people experience traumatic physical, mental and emotional effects from their fear of 13 and particularly Friday the 13th . Many will not leave home on this day and even others will not get out of bed.

Again, apostasy, revolt, rebellion and even fears are not always associated with the number 13.

In Judaism, 12 signifies the age at which a boy matures and becomes a Bar Mitzvah or “one to whom the commandments apply.” The Bat Mitzvah (female), is at the age of 13 for girls. Both of these ceremonies are for a Jewish boy or girl who has ‘come of age.’ This also coincides with physical puberty. 12 or 13 was not the age when they became adults, but a time when they could participate in the Sabbath.

In Bible times, the Bar Mizvah (boys), or the Bat Mitzvah (girls), was the first time they were permitted to or considered mature enough, to ask an intelligent question of a adult. At the age of 12 was, when Jesus was lost from his parental party and found later in the temple both “asking questions” and hearing answers. He was of legal age to do so and would have been required to have participated in a public Bar Mitzvah ceremony. But there is evidence to support that this ceremony did not occur at the same time as other Jewish boys, but in a separate ceremony to show that based on the belief at the time, he was a bastard child, for his father was unknown. Thus he was separated and considered an outsider, one drawn out publicly to show that he was a child, born out of wedlock. His was considered an untimely birth; an unlucky birth and a birth associated with apostasy. But there is more to the number 13.

Thirteen may be viewed as 12 + 1 to mess up the order of governmental perfection. But thirteen can also be seen as 12 + 1 to restore the order of governmental perfection. It is the number of atonement. Common definitions are:

Atonement – noun

 

1. satisfaction or reparation for a wrong or injury; amends.

2. (sometimes initial capital letter) Theology. the doctrine concerning the reconciliation of God and humankind, esp. as accomplished through the life, suffering, and death of Christ.

3. Archaic. reconciliation; agreement.

Many cultures and religions have often used animal sacrifice as symbols of atonement, or reconciliation. Such animals among others were bullocks, goats and lambs.

Another way to view this word atonement is – AtOneMent or being at one with. Such was another number 13 in American History, which occurred on July, 4th, 1776.

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Thirteen colonies somehow, unanimously declared, their independence from the world’s most powerful military at the time and the King of England. There is much evidence to support that only 10-13% of the population among those 13 colonies, ever fought in The Revolutionary War.

While there were unsuccessful colonies in the ‘New World’ to precede it, the first English-speaking colony to survive, was at Jamestown, Virginia. The last to settle was Georgia, by charter, in 1732. The list below includes the thirteen colonies in chronological order.

  • Virginia 1607
  • Massachusetts 1620
  • New Hampshire 1623
  • Maryland 1634
  • Connecticut 1635/1636
  • Rhode Island 1636 Note: This was the first colony to guarantee all its citizens freedom of worship. This colony was founded on separation of church and state.
  • Delaware 1638
  • North Carolina 1653
  • South Carolina 1663
  • New Jersey 1664
  • New York 1664
  • Pennsylvania 1682
  • Georgia 1732/1733

Memorize the following and perhaps it will help you to recall the chronological order of the 13 colonies. The Capital letters and highlighted letters correspond to the individual colonies:

[Virtue and liberty, the Mass appeal for New Hope, Marries the land and Connects Realism and Idealism with Deliberate Noble Colonies and Sole Colonies, Newly Jerked together; Newly Yoked together and Penned together by the word writ and signed by 13, made it Great!]

To the King of England, the 13 colonies were an ‘unlucky’ lot, traitorous, rebellious and a representation of apostasy. To the 13 colonies, they were at one with each other, and with one heart and one resolve, they atoned for the “sins” of their mother England.

For WE the People, the beneficiaries of the 13, it is a wonderful number! It is a number that marks our liberty. And as a person born on the 13th, I’m particularly fond of the number. 🙂

Next time: ‘We Declare’ – 56 signers and our Founding Fathers

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Lady Liberty – How’s She Doing?

‘The Cost of Liberty

by Dahni

© Copyright 7/12/09

all rights reserved

CostofLiberty1

Unless you who read here, are an active member or have served in the military (for which I sincerely THANK YOU), what has liberty cost the rest of us? For the most part, it is a cost that has been paid by the blood, sweat, tears and even the lives of many, for each of us. It is a gift to us!

Around national election time in the United States, there is a familiar saying to many, “as Maine goes, so goes the nation.” This is a reference to the countless times that the state of Maine on the east coast and one of the first areas to close their voting booths, while others remain open, have voted for the eventual winner in many presidential races. When it comes to the subject of liberty, I believe that as the United States goes, so goes the world!

What has liberty cost you or me, except for perhaps your time in reading these many posts or my time in writing them? Even though the title of this blog is, Lady Liberty – “How’s She Doing,” it is more than just about a mere statue. It is about Liberty. As a symbol of this liberty, I have written many entries about this statue, for a starting place; a foundation upon which to build, and as a beacon to light our way to liberty.

Symbols and icons are important, for which visual and associative images can be firmly fixed in our minds. When it comes to the symbolism of the Statue of Liberty, it is full controversy, often argued, hotly debated and even vehemently abhorred. There can be no doubt as to her mix with ancient Greek and Roman mythology. Free Masons were involved in the building and evidenced by her cornerstone. The Statue of Liberty is the imaginative concept of the sculptor and what we see is the persona of some feminine deity. But is this what the Statue of Liberty is about, some religious relic to contend over as to its ulterior motives and her many conspiracy theories? It is just a statue.

Is it just a statue? It is a work of art and a marvel of engineering in both her original construction and her restoration. She rises as a testament to wonder, for it was almost never even built. She has withstood the ravages of time and climate and even terrorist attacks or conspiracies. She has been fought over by New York and New Jersey. She has been accused of merely belonging to New York. She was denied funding by the state of New York, the government of the United States and the wealthy of our nation. It was the freedom of the press she stands for that called for WE the People to her aide. She is perhaps the greatest single example in the world today, of a publicly funded project. Beyond profit in selling more newspapers, coins, miniature statues, insurance, T-shirts, movies and every conceivable thing that money could buy, with her as the focal point, what is it about her that so captures our hearts? Quite simply, it is a statue of liberty.

As a statue of such size, features and symbolism, it draws us to its purpose and her purpose is, liberty. But the word liberty is where the lady may become confusing, for she may mean different things to different people?

To the emancipated black slave from the 1800’s, she is symbolic of the freedom from slavery. To the immigrant upon first seeing her, she was the torch bearer of opportunity and the freedom from tyranny.

To others, she is a sore and an open wound to fight and argue over. Her pagan, non-Christian, Free Masonry symbolism despised. Some argue over the origin of her beginnings and over the inspiration of her face.

To Edouard Rene Lefebvre de Laboulaye, in 1871, she was just an idea for a gift to the United States from France, to celebrate our first 100 years as a nation of liberty.

To Bartholdi the sculptor, she was through years of persistence and uncertainty, the realization of a lifetime dream come true. To the poet Emma Lazarus, it was an attempt to raise the funds to build her.

To simple and common folk; to little children breaking their piggy banks, she was a cause to raise the funds to build her.

To Joseph Pulitzer, she was the twin symbol of freedom for opportunity and the responsibility of the press.

To many that pledged their lives and fortunes and sacred honor during the Revolutionary War, she sets upon the ground of the country they died for. To many that gave their lives during the War Between the States, she is proof that our nation was preserved. To those that have fought and died in every war and conflict since, they are the reason she still stands. But –

“How’s She Doing?”

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Shall Liberty shed tears of sorrow and fade into obscurity? Shall she disappear at sunset and be forever plunged into darkness? Shall the very chains and shackles of slavery and tyranny she once trampled underfoot, be used to pull her to the ground and broken into forgetfulness? Shall her tablet with the words: “July 4th, 1776,” be shattered? Shall her torch no more reflect and her beacon no more guide? Shall her light be forever veiled behind the fog of apathy over the once safe harbor called, “…indivisible, with liberty and justice for all?” Thus shall surely be her fate, if not for WE the People. And as the United States goes, so goes out the light of, ‘Liberty, enlightening the world!’ WE are not the first democracy or the oldest republic, but WE are the oldest continuing republic upon the face of the earth. It is up to you and me, WE the People, if this future will continue, but rise or fall, it proceeds or recedes into obscurity, for one single word and that is Liberty. What is Liberty and what does it mean?

The words liberty and freedom have been used interchangeably for a long time. The two words have been continually redefined over the centuries, as U.S. Americans have contested and contest today, the basic notion of what it means to be free. For the founders of the nation, liberty was the fundamental American value. That was a legacy of the conception of “English liberty,” with which Britons proudly distinguished themselves from the slavish peoples of the Continent who were unprotected from the arbitrary power of the state. Echoing John Locke, the Declaration of Independence speaks of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” The text doesn’t mention freedom at all! It was liberty that Patrick Henry declared himself willing to die for, and liberty that the ringing bell in Philadelphia proclaimed on July 8, 1776. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address began by invoking a nation “conceived in liberty,” but went on to resolve that it should have a “new birth of freedom.”

In the United States, there could have never been liberty without first declaring our independence from tyranny. Without liberty, there can be no freedom. Many of our freedoms are outlined in The Constitution of the United States of America. But freedom when shared among so many is invoked, was neither intended to mean nor does it mean to do whatever the individual thinks is right for them. That is a definition of anarchy or mob rule. Liberty is the independence or the freedom to do what is right for all people.

Years after the dedication of the Statue of Liberty, in 1903, a poem was inscribed on a bronze plaque, inside the monument. Countless people and politicians have taken excerpts and invoked the words.

The New Colossus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
with conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
a mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame,
“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
with silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

Poem by Emma Lazarus written in 1883 to help fundraising for the Pedestal

What is the cost of liberty?

  • Costs to build the original statue and the pedestal: around $520,000.00
  • Costs to restore and preserve the statue in 1986: 65 million dollars +
  • Cost of Liberty – to have, to hold, to protect, to defend and preserve:

PRICELESS!

CostofLiberty3

Liberty – It’s one thing

MasterCard® and credit can’t buy!

Click here to: Thirteen – What’s in a Number?’

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Lady Liberty – How’s She Doing?

‘The French Kiss’

compiled from multiple sources

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There are at least 15 copies of the Statue of Liberty located around France

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Three replicas of the Statue of Liberty are found in Paris, France. One stands in the Jardin du Luxembourg: this is a bronze model that Bartholdi used in designing the New York statue. Bartholdi offered it to the Luxembourg museum in 1900 and it was placed in the park in 1906. The date written on this statue’s tablet (where the New York statue has “JULY IV MDCCLXXVI”) is “15 de novembre 1889” (November 15, 1889), the date at which the larger Parisian replica was inaugurated.

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This second Statue of Liberty in Paris is near the Grenelle Bridge on the Île des Cygnes, an island in the river Seine in Paris, France. It was dedicated on November 15, 1889, as a gift from the United States. The statue looks towards the Atlantic Ocean and hence towards its “larger sister” in New York Harbor, which had been erected three years earlier. It bears the same coordinates as her sister at 48°51′0″N 2°16′47″E / 48.85°N 2.27972°E / 48.85; 2.27972. The statue stands 37 feet 9 inches high. Its tablet bears two dates: “IV JUILLET 1776” (July 4, 1776 marking the United States Declaration of Independence, and “XIV JUILLET 1789” (July 14, 1789: the storming of the Bastille. This statue is shown in the movie National Treasure: Book of Secrets as one of the historic locations.

A third copy, also produced by Bartholdi is located in the Musée des Arts et Métiers.

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A life-size copy of the torch, ‘Flame of Liberty,’ can be seen above the entrance to the Pont de l’Alma tunnel near the Champs Elysees in Paris. It was given to the city as a return gift in honor of the Centennial Celebration of the statue’s dedication. Since it is above the Pont de l’Alma car tunnel in which Princess Diana died, the torch became an unofficial memorial to the Princess.

Another replica is the Bordeaux Statue of Liberty. This 2.5 m (8 ft) statue is in the city of Bordeaux in Southwest France. The first Bordeaux statue was seized and melted down by the Nazis in World War II. The statue was replaced in 2000 and a plaque was added to commemorate the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks. On the night of March 25, 2003, unknown vandals poured red paint and gasoline on the replica and set it on fire. The vandals also cracked the pedestal of the plaque.

There is a replica in the northwest of France, in the small town of Barentin near Rouen. It was made for a French movie, Le Cerveau (“the brain”), directed by Gérard Oury and featuring actors Jean-Paul Belmondo and Bourvil.

A fifth replica is located in the center of the town Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer near Marseilles, France.

A replica of the Statue of Liberty  at 39 ft 4 in may be seen in Colmar, France, the city of Bartholdi’s birth, was dedicated on July 4, 2004 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of his death. It stands at the north entrance of the city. The Bartholdi Museum in Colmar contains numerous models of various sizes made by Bartholdi during the process of designing the statue.

From 1902 to 2002, visitors to Midtown Manhattan were occasionally disoriented by what seemed to be an impossibly nearby view of the statue. They were seeing a 30-foot high replica located at 43 West 64th Street atop the Liberty Warehouse. In February 2002 the statue was removed by the building’s owners to allow the building to be expanded. It was donated to the Brooklyn Museum of Art which installed it in its sculpture garden on October 2005.

FrenchKiss5Replica of the Statue of Liberty, Las Vegas

A bronze sculpture of the Statue of Liberty is on display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

Duluth, Minnesota, has a small copy on the west side of the Duluth Entertainment Convention Center, in the center of a clearing surrounded by pine trees where it may be passed unnoticed. It was presented to the city by some of Bartholdi’s descendants residing in Duluth.

The Boy Scouts of America celebrated their fortieth anniversary in 1950 with the theme of “Strengthen the Arm of Liberty”. Between 1949 and 1952, approximately two hundred 8 foot four inch replicas of the statue, made of stamped copper, were purchased by Boy Scout troops and donated in 39 states in the U.S. and several of its possessions and territories. The project was the brainchild of Kansas City businessman, J.P. Whitaker, who was then Scout Commissioner of the Kansas City Area Council. The copper statues were manufactured by Friedley-Voshardt Co. (Chicago, IL) and purchased through the Kansas City Boy Scout office by those wanting one. The statues are approximately 8 1/2 feet tall without the base, constructed of sheet copper, weigh 290 pounds, and originally cost $350 plus freight. The mass-produced statues are not great art nor meticulously accurate (a conservator notes that “her face isn’t as mature as the real Liberty. It’s rounder and more like a little girl’s”), but they are cherished, particularly since 9/11. Many have been lost or destroyed, but preservationists have been able to account for about a hundred of them, and BSA Troop 101 of Cheyenne, Wyoming has collected photographs of over 100 of them.

There is a half-size replica at the New York-New York Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. Another smaller replica stands in Las Vegas, on West Sahara Avenue. The pedestal once housed a local business, Statue of Liberty Pizza. Today it advertises Liberty Tax Service, a tax preparation firm.

The city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota erected a replacement bronze reproduction standing 9 ft (2.7 m) tall in McKennan Park atop the original pedestal for a long-missing wooden replica.

FrenchKiss6“Liberty Enlightening the World” replica in Birmingham, Alabama.

A 36-foot (11 m) tall bronze replica, accurately based on Bartholdi;s “Liberty Enlightening the World”, stands in Vestavia Hills, a suburb of Birmingham, Alabama. It was cast in 1956 at the Société Antoine Durenne foundry in Somerville Haut Marne, France for placement in 1958 atop the Liberty National Life Insurance Company Building in downtown Birmingham. It was relocated and placed on a 60-foot (18 m) tall granite pedestal adjacent to Interstate 459 in 1989.

Two 30-foot copper replicas stand atop the Liberty National Bank Building in Buffalo, New York, nearly 354 ft above street level.

A 25 ft. tall replica sits on the ruins of the late Marysville Bridge (erected on a platform (pier)) in the Dauphin Narrows of Susquehanna River north of Harrisburg. The replica was built by a local activist Gene Stilp on July 2, 1986; it was made of venetian blinds and stood 18 feet tall. Six years later, after it was destroyed in a windstorm, it was rebuilt by Stilp and other local citizens, of wood, metal, glass and fiberglass, to a height of 25 feet.

A Lego replica of the Statue of Liberty consisting of 2882 bricks and standing 3 ft. tall is a popular sculpture among Lego enthusiasts. The statue went out of production, but due to popular demand was returned to sale. A much larger replica built entirely in Lego can be seen in Legoland Billund. A smaller version of the Billund model is on display at the Legoland California amusement park.

A 25-foot replica of the Statue, lofting a Christian cross, holding the Ten Commandments, and named the “Statue of Liberation through Christ”, was erected by a predominantly African-American church in Memphis, Tennessee on July 4, 2006.

A small replica stands on the grounds of the Cherokee Capitol Building in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, a gift from the local Boy Scouts in 1950. There is a 6-foot tall replica in Lebanon, Tennessee, near the southwest corner of the intersection of East Main Street and South College Street.

Fargo, North Dakota also has a replica of the statue of liberty on the corner of Main Ave. & 2nd Street at the entrance of the Main Avenue Bridge.

The Kansas State Capitol in Topeka, Kansas has a replica of the Statue of Liberty.

There is a replica on the shoreline of Lake Chaubunagungamaug in Webster, Massachusetts.

In order to promote the 2008 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at Yankee Stadium, the city of New York has 42 different 8’6″ Statue of Liberty replicas, each in different locations in the city (34 outdoors, 8 indoors). Each is uniquely designed with different team colors and logos, along with several ones with the All-Star Game logo or different New York landmarks. This is similar to what was done with the cows in Chicago, the crabs in Baltimore, the angels in Los Angeles, and the Mr. Potato Head’s in the state of Rhode Island. 9″ replicas can be bought of the larger replicas.

There is one also on Alki Beach, in Seattle, Washington.

There is one in front of the old Sioux City, Iowa auditorium.

A replica stands in a roadway park on Orange Avenue in Orlando, Florida.

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Statue of Liberty Park near Shimoda, Aomori Japan.

FrenchKiss8Statue of Liberty replica at Odaiba, overlooking the Rainbow Bridge in Tokyo Bay

The French Statue of Liberty came to Odaiba, the beach area of Tokyo since April 1998 until May 1999 in commemoration of “The French year in Japan”. Because of its popularity, in 2000, a replica of the French Statue of Liberty was erected at the same place. Also in Japan, a small Statue of Liberty is in the Amerika-mura (American Village) shopping district in Osaka, Japan. Another replica is located near the town of Shimoda south of Misawa, Japan where the United States has a U.S. Air Force base with 8,000 military members. This replica is located on the same latitude as the original statue in New York.

FrenchKiss9Replica of the Statue displayed at Karmøy, Norway.

FrenchKiss10Statue of Liberty replica in the village of Arraba, Israel.

From 1887 to 1945, Hanoi was home to another copy of the statue. Measuring 9 ft 4 inches tall, it was erected by the French colonial government after being sent from France for an exhibition. It was known to locals unaware of its history as Turợng Bà đầm xòe (Statue of the Open-Dress Dame). When the French lost control of French Indochina during World War II, the statue was toppled on August 1, 1945 after being deemed a vestige of the colonial government along with other statues erected by the French.

During the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989, Chinese student demonstrators in Beijing built a 33 foot image called the Goddess of Democracy, which sculptor Tsao Tsing-yuan said was intentionally dissimilar to the Statue of Liberty to avoid being “too openly pro-American.” In 1897 a 4 foot replica in iron and bronze was erected in Cenicero, Spain, to honor local fighters during the First Carlist War.

In 1936 it was removed during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. It was restored in 1976 and moved indoor in 1997 because of deterioration, and a new bronze statue replaced it in the original plaza.

In Buenos Aires, Argentina there is a small replica in Barrancas De Belgrano Square, acquired by Argentina to France.

In Lima, Peru the New York casino in the Jesus Maria District has a small replica in the main entrance. The whole casino is a tribute to the state of New York and the USA.

A smaller replica is in the Norwegian village of  Visnes, where the copper used in the original statue was mined.

A replica stands atop the Hotel Victory in Priština, Kosovo.

A replica stands in front of New York City Center, a shoopping in Barra de Tijuca, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Federation.

In Minimundus, a miniature park located at the Wörthersee in Carinthia, Austria is another replica of the Statue of Liberty.

There is also a small replica located at RAF Lakenheath, England, at the base flag plaza, made from leftover copper from original.

At a highway intersection in Jerusalem called ‘New York Square,’ there is an abstract skeletal replica of the Statue.

A 115 ft copy is in the German Heidepark Soltau theme park, located on a lake with cruising Mississippi steamboats. It weighs 28 tonnes (31 short tons), is made of plastic foam on a steel frame with polyester cladding, and was designed by the Dutch artist Gerla Spee.

Camp John Hay, a former US base in the Baguio City (Philippines), also has a small replica of the statue near the amphitheater.

A 30-foot replica can also be seen at the Westfield Marion shopping complex in Adelaide, South Australia.

A 17-foot, 3.4 ton replica stood atop the Liberty Shoe factory in Leicester, England until 2003 when the building was demolished, the statue was put into storage while the building was replaced. The statue, which dates back to the 1920s, was initially going to be put back on the replacement building, but was too heavy, so in December 2008 following restoration it been placed upon a pedestal near Liberty Park Halls of Residence on a traffic island close to where it originally stood.

A 15 feet high replica of the statue of liberty is seen in the western entrance to the village of Arraba in Israel, near a local restaurant.

A 10 feet high replica is situated on the stairwell of a bowling alley building in Warrington, England. It used to be above the entrance of a restaurant nearby.

There are at least two Statue of Liberty replicas (greater than 30 feet) in Taiwan. These two statues are in the cities of Keelung and Taipei.

A replica of the torch was created for the 1968 film, Planet of the Apes, for the last scene, and the torch was later sent to be in the last episode of Lost in Space, titled “Junkyard of Space.”

Truly, this original gift from France to the United States, has kissed the world.

There is a sitting Liberty, many small miniatures and various replicas throughout the world. Perhaps there is no other statue that has been so duplicated, anywhere and at anytime? Liberty is not just an symbol of the United states, it is the cry of every heart for,

Liberty Enlightening the World!”

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Next time: ‘The Cost of Liberty

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Lady Liberty – How’s She Doing?

‘The Lady gets a Makeover’

compiled from multiple sources

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The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each purchase made with an American Express card, American Express would contribute one penny to the renovation of the statue. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the Statue of Liberty restoration project.

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Face of Statue of Liberty was uncrated on Liberty Island (Bedloe’s Island) in 1885.

Note wrought iron bars, shaped to match, and attached to the copper skin, which provided support of the skin to connect to the iron framework The dark color was the result of oxidation of the copper material, which turned deeper brown, black, and after about twenty years, the light green color of fully oxidized copper.

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Uncrated              Replica showing relative size

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Replica of foot showing relative size

Centennial Exposition 1876, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania World’s Fair and later in New York, so America was given a “sneak preview,” of what was to come.

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Statue of Liberty Museum and Observatory

Built into the pedestal’s massive masonry are two sets of four iron girders, connected by iron tie beams that are carried up to become part of Eiffel’s framework for the statue itself. Thus, Liberty is integral with her pedestal.

In 1916, floodlights were placed around the base of the statue. Also in 1916, the Black Tom explosion caused $100,000 worth of damage ($1.98 million in 2008 dollars) to the statue, embedding fragmentation and eventually leading to the closing of the torch to visitors.

The Black Tom explosion of July 30, 1916 in Jersey City, New Jersey was an act of sabotage on American ammunition supplies by German agents to prevent the materials from being used by the Allies in World War I.

Also in 1916, Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, modified the original copper torch by cutting away most of the copper in the flame, retrofitting glass panes and installing an internal light. After these modifications, the torch severely leaked rainwater and snowmelt, accelerating corrosion inside the statue. It was also confusing to birds.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary (October 28, 1936).

The Statue of Liberty was engineered to withstand heavy winds. Winds of 50 miles per hour cause the Statue to sway 3 inches (7.62 cm) and the torch to sway 5 inches (12.7 cm). This allows the Statue to move rather than break in high wind load conditions.

In 1984, the statue was closed so that a $62 million renovation could be performed for the statue’s centennial. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca was appointed by President Reagan to head the commission overseeing the task. He was later dismissed to avoid any ‘conflict of interest.’

Workers erected scaffolding around the statue, obscuring it from public view until the rededication on July 3, 1986. The scaffolding-clad statue can be seen in the 1984 film ‘Desperately Seeking Susan,’ in the 1985 film ‘Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins,’ and in the 1985 film ‘Brewster’s Millions.’

Inside work began with workers using liquid nitrogen to remove seven layers of paint applied to the interior of the copper skin over the decades. That left two layers of tar originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Blasting with baking soda removed the tar without further damaging the copper. Larger holes in the copper skin had edges smoothed then mated with new copper patches.

Each of the 1,350 shaped iron ribs backing the skin had to be removed and replaced. The iron had experienced galvanic corrosion wherever it contacted the copper skin, losing up to 50% of its thickness. Bartholdi had anticipated the problem and used an asbestos/pitch combination to separate the metals, but the insulation had worn away decades before. New bars of stainless steel bent into matching shapes replaced the iron bars, with Teflon film separating them from the skin for further insulation and friction reduction.

The internal structure of the upraised right arm was reworked. The statue was erected with the arm offset 18″ (0.46 m) to the right and forward of Eiffel’s central frame, while the head was offset 24″ (0.61 m) to the left, which had been compromising the framework. Theory held that Bartholdi made the modification without Eiffel’s involvement after seeing the arm and head were too close. Engineers considered reinforcements made in 1932 insufficient and added diagonal bracing in 1984 and 1986 to make the arm structurally sound.

Besides the replacement of much of the internal iron with stainless steel and the structural reinforcement of the statue itself, the restoration of the mid-1980s also included the replacement of the original torch with a replica.

A new torch replaced the original in 1986, which was deemed beyond repair because of the extensive 1916 modifications. The 1886 torch is now in the monument’s lobby museum. The new torch has gold plating applied to the exterior of the “flame,” which is illuminated by external lamps on the surrounding balcony platform.

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1916                                    1986

New stairs replaced the original iron stairs, a newer elevator was installed within the pedestal, and climate control systems were upgraded.  The Statue of Liberty was reopened to the public on July 5, 1986.

Click here to: Our Lady Liberty “How’s She Doing?” – The French Kiss

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Lady Liberty – How’s She Doing?

‘The Lady’s Symbols’

compiled from multiple sources

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The Statue of Liberty is a monumental sculpture, portraying a woman escaping the chains of tyranny, which lie at her feet. Held aloft in her right hand is a flaming torch, representing liberty. Her left hand grasps a tablet on which is inscribed in roman numerals, the date the United States declared its independence, “July 4, 1776.” She wears flowing robes, and the seven rays of her spiked crown that jets out into the sky symbolizes the seven seas and continents.

7 Spikes in the Crown represent:

Seven Continents:
North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Australia

The Seven Seas:

Arctic, Antarctic, North & South Atlantic, North & South Pacific, Indian

SEVEN SEAS – Figuratively, all the waters or oceans of the world. The phrase probably has its origins in Brahmanic mythology: the seven seas dividing and surrounding the seven land masses of the earth. In modern times it has been applied to the seven oceans.

25 windows in the crown represent: “natural minerals” of the earth

Toga represents: The Ancient Republic of Rome

Torch represents: Enlightenment

Chains underfoot represent: Liberty crushing the chains of slavery

Location of alternate entrance: Sole of Liberty’s right foot
Bronze plaque with the poem was mounted in the base of the Statue in 1903

The Statue is believed to be inspired by that of The Colossus of Rhodes. The Rhodes statue was of the Greek god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC. It is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Before its destruction, the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters (107 ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.

The classical appearance (Roman stola, sandals, facial expression) derives from Libertas, ancient Rome’s goddess of freedom from slavery, oppression, and tyranny. Her raised right foot is on the move. This symbol of Liberty and Freedom is not standing still or at attention in the harbor, it is moving forward, as her left foot tramples broken shackles at her feet, in symbolism of the United States’ wish to be free from oppression and tyranny.

Since the 1940s, it has been claimed that the seven spikes on the crown epitomize the Seven Seas and seven continents. Her torch signifies enlightenment. The tablet in her hand represents knowledge and shows the date of the United States Declaration of Independence, in roman numerals, July IV, MDCCLXXVI.

The general appearance of the statue’s head approximates the Roman Sun-god Apollo or the Greek Sun-god Helios as preserved on an ancient marble tablet (today in the Archaeological Museum of Corinth, Corinth, Greece) – Apollo was represented as a solar deity, dressed in a similar robe and having on its head a “radiate crown” with the seven spiked rays of the Helios-Apollo’s sun rays, like the Statue’s nimbus or halo. The ancient Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was a statue of Helios with a radiate crown.

The Colossus is referred to in the 1883 sonnet The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus. Lazarus’ poem was later engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the Statue of Liberty in 1903.

Click here to: Our Lady Liberty “How’s She Doing?” The Lady Gets a Makeover

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Lady Liberty – How’s She Doing?

‘Dates with the Lady’

compiled from multiple sources

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Inside looking out the crown by day and night

  • On Washington’s Birthday, Feb. 22, 1877, Congress approved the use of a site on Bedloe’s Island suggested by Bartholdi. This island of 12 acres had been owned in the 17th century by a Walloon named Isaac Bedloe.
  • The statue was finished May 21, 1884, and formally presented to the U.S. minister to France, Levi Parsons Morton, July 4, 1884, by Ferdinand de Lesseps, head of the Franco-American Union, promoter of the Panama Canal, and builder of the Suez Canal.
  • On Aug. 5, 1884, the Americans laid the cornerstone for the pedestal. This was to be built on the foundations of Fort Wood, which had been erected by the government in 1811. The American committee had raised $125,000, but this was found to be inadequate. Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York World, appealed on Mar. 16, 1885, for general donations. By Aug. 11, 1885, he had raised $100,000.
  • The statue arrived dismantled, in 214 packing cases, from Rouen, France, in June 1885. The last rivet of the statue was driven Oct. 28, 1886, when Pres. Grover Cleveland dedicated the monument.
  • Date arm closed to visitors: 1916

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Human statue around World War 1

  • Date designated a National Monument: October 15, 1924
  • Aug. 3, 1956, President Eisenhower approved a resolution of Congress changing the name to Liberty Island.
  • The statue weighs 450,000 lbs., or 225 tons. The copper sheeting weighs 200,000 lbs. There are 167 steps from the land level to the top of the pedestal, 168 steps inside the statue to the head, and 54 rungs on the ladder leading to the arm that holds the torch.
  • A $2.5 million building housing the American Museum of Immigration was opened by President Richard Nixon Sept. 26, 1972, at the base of the statue. It houses a permanent exhibition of photos, posters, and artifacts tracing the history of American immigration. The Statue of Liberty National Monument is administered by the National Park Service.
  • Two years of restoration work was completed before the statue’s centennial celebration on July 4, 1986. Among other repairs, the multimillion dollar project included replacing the 1,600 wrought iron bands that hold the statue’s copper skin to its frame, replacing its torch, and installing an elevator.

Click here to: Our Lady Liberty “How’s She Doing?” – The Lady’s Symbols

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